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2.2 Land Ways, Land Vehicles and Users

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2.2 Land Ways, Land Vehicles and Users

2.2.1 trafficway: A trafficway is any land way open to the public as a matter of right or custom for moving persons or property from one place to another 

Figures 1 and 2 below are examples of common configurations and components of trafficways. They are not required for a land way to be a trafficway.

Inclusions:

Within areas with guarded entrances, such as military posts or private residential developments, land ways are trafficways if the guards customarily admit public traffic
Privately constructed and/or maintained road open to the public for moving persons or property for transportation purposes
Local road in a residential development, which is open to the public
Land way providing vehicular access and/or circulation from a trafficway to a business open to the public (See 2.5.22)
Examples:

1.) Land way within a gated community when the gates are open to the public

2.) Circulating system of roadways in the land way of a shopping center or shopping mall which provides public access to the parking lots

3.) A road providing access to the public from the trafficway to the parking lot of a major chain store

4.) A road with unrestricted access in a private retirement community

   Exclusions:

o A land way under construction is not a trafficway if traffic is prohibited from entering by signing or barriers which are in conformance with applicable standards. However, if any part of the land way is open to traffic while the remainder is closed, that part which is open for traffic is a trafficway. Likewise, any temporary bypass of a construction site is a trafficway.

o A land way temporarily closed to travel and marked by signing or barriers which are in conformance with applicable standards is not a trafficway even though used by authorized vehicles, such as maintenance vehicles, or when intentionally or inadvertently used by unauthorized vehicles. A land way open only to local traffic is not considered closed.

o A road in a gated community that is only open to residents and their guests

o A land way not open to the public

o Parking space and parking aisle (See 2.5.22)

Examples:

1.) Driveway to a residence or business

2.) Military base or gated community with restricted access

3.) Parking aisle providing entry to parking spaces or stalls

2.2.2 private way: A private way is any land way other than a trafficway. The space within a crossing of a private way and a trafficway shall be considered a trafficway.
 
2.2.3 railway: A railway is any private way reserved primarily for land vehicles moving persons or property from one place to another on rails.

2.2.4 railway vehicle: A railway vehicle is any land vehicle that is (1) designed primarily for, or in use for, moving persons or property from one place to another on rails and (2) not in use on a land way other than a railway. 

Inclusions: 

Streetcar on private way
Exclusions: 

o Streetcar operating on trafficway (See 2.2.8) 

2.2.5 railway train: A railway train is any motorized railway vehicle. 

2.2.6 road vehicle: A road vehicle is any land vehicle other than a railway vehicle. (See 2.2.7 and 2.2.8)

2.2.6.1 personal conveyance: A personal conveyance is a device, other than a transport device, used by a pedestrian (See 2.2.36) for personal mobility assistance or recreation. These devices can be motorized or human powered, but not propelled by pedaling. 

Inclusions: 

1.) Rideable toys
Roller skates, in-line skates
Skateboard
Skates
Baby Carriage
Scooter
Toy Wagon
2.) Motorized rideable toys
Motorized skateboard
Motorized toy car
3.) Devices for personal mobility assistance
Segway-style device
Motorized and non-motorized wheelchair
Handicapped scooter

Exclusions:

o Golf cart
o Low Speed Vehicle (LSV) (See 2.2.7.1)
o Go-cart
o Minibike
o "Pocket" motorcycle
o Motor scooter
o Moped (See 2.2.9.4)

2.2.7 motor vehicle: A motor vehicle is any motorized (mechanically or electrically powered) road vehicle not operated on rails. (See 2.2.7.1, 2.2.7.2, 2.2.7.3, 2.2.9 - 2.2.26)
 Inclusions: 

Electrically powered bus attached to cables
Trolley on highway tires
Low speed vehicle (LSV) (See 2.2.7.1)
Motor-driven cycle (See 2.2.9.1)
All working motor vehicles (See 2.2.7.2)
Examples:

1.) A tow truck using its winch to pull a vehicle out of a ditch

2.) Electric or telephone company truck with cherry picker repairing cables on a utility pole

3.) Road paint striping truck in the process of painting lines on the roadway

4.) Garbage truck being loaded with trash

Exclusions:

o Motorized personal conveyance (See 2.2.6.1)

Examples:

1.)   Motorized skate board

2.)   Motorized toy car

3.)   Motorized wheelchair or handicapped scooter

4.)   Segway-style device

2.2.7.1 low speed vehicle: A low speed vehicle (LSV) is a motor vehicle with four or more wheels whose top speed is greater than 20 miles per hour, but not greater than 25 miles per hour (mph).

LSVs are required to be equipped with basic items of safety equipment: headlamps, stop lamps, turn signal lamps, tail lamps, reflex reflectors, parking brake, windshields of either type AS-1 or AS-5 glazing, rearview mirrors, seat belts, and vehicle identification numbers (VINs).



Inclusions: 

A conventional golf cart that was modified, after its original manufacture, to increase its top speed into the 20-25 mph range

An originally manufactured custom golf cart (that is not a modified conventional golf cart) that has a top speed above 20 mph but not greater than 25 miles per hour  

Examples:   

1.)   Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV)

2.)   Fleet golf carts sold to golf courses that have been speed-modified to increase their top speed into the 20-25 mph range

3.)   Personal golf carts sold to individual persons that have been speed-modified or originally manufactured to achieve a top speed above 20 mph but not greater than 25 miles per hour

4.) Other low speed motor vehicles designed for transport on local streets

Exclusions:

o Conventional golf cart not modified or originally custom manufactured to achieve top speeds above 20 mph

o Automobile

o Any personal conveyance (See 2.2.6.1)

o Any size slow moving farm tractor/equipment

Examples:

1.)  A golf cart used solely to carry one or more people and golf equipment to play golf, sold to golf courses

2.)  A golf cart used to carry one or more people and may carry golf equipment to play golf, sold to individual persons who may use them to travel on trafficways to and from golf courses and to play golf, to travel on trafficways for purposes unrelated to golf, or for all these purposes

3.)  A golf cart that has been speed-modified after its manufacture or originally custom manufactured to achieve top speeds greater than 25 mph

4.)   Motorized wheelchair

5.)   Motorized skateboard

6.) Motorized handicapped scooter

7.) Personal transport devices such as the Segway

2.2.7.2 working motor vehicle: A working motor vehicle is a motor vehicle in the act of performing construction, maintenance, or utility work related to the trafficway. This "work" may be located within open or closed portions of the trafficway and motor vehicles performing these activities can be within or outside of the trafficway boundaries.

Inclusions: 

Vehicle at work in a marked work zone
Vehicle at work on the median, shoulder, or roadside.
Mobile maintenance convoy
A law enforcement vehicle which is participating strictly in a stationary construction or mobile maintenance activity as a traffic slowing, control, signaling, or calming influence
Examples:

1) Asphalt roller working in a highway construction zone

2) State highway maintenance crew mowing grass on roadside

3.)  Utility truck performing maintenance on the power lines along the roadway

4.)  A private excavating company contracted by the state digging the foundation for a new overpass

Exclusions:

o Vehicle performing a private construction/ maintenance activity

o Law enforcement vehicle performing other work activities, such as traffic stops, crash investigation, patrolling, and traffic control, which is not related to construction, maintenance, or utility work on the trafficway

o Vehicle performing a work activity other than highway construction, maintenance, or utility work

o Construction, maintenance, utility vehicle while moving from one job site to another

Examples:

1.)  An excavation company digging a foundation for a new building

2.)  Garbage truck, delivery truck, taxi, emergency vehicle, tow truck, etc.

2.2.7.3 commercial motor vehicle: A commercial motor vehicle is any motor vehicle used for the transportation of goods, property or people in interstate (See 2.9.2) or intrastate (See 2.9.3) commerce.  

Inclusions:

Motor vehicle providing transportation of goods, property, or people for compensation (for-hire)
Privately owned motor vehicle providing transportation of privately owned goods or property in furtherance of a business enterprise
Privately owned motor vehicle providing passenger transportation in furtherance of a business enterprise
Examples:

1.) A trucking company hauling a manufacturing company's goods for a fee

2.) A motor coach transporting passengers within and between cities and towns

3.) A truck or truck tractor owned by an individual truck driver used to carry goods or property under contract

4.) An airport shuttle bus service paid to transport persons to hotels and other businesses

5.) A manufacturing company hauling its own products to retail stores
6.) A retail store delivering products to its buyers

7.) A business engaged in the transportation of students to and from school and school-related activities

8.) An agricultural farm hauling its produce to market

9.) A taxi or limousine service transporting passengers for a fee

Exclusions:

o Privately owned motor vehicle providing private transportation of personal property or people

Examples:

1.) A noncommercial horse rancher transporting hay bales from his pasture on one side of the road to his stables on the other side in a medium truck

2.) Homeowner carrying recyclables to a drop-off point in a personally owned pickup truck greater than 10,000 lbs.

3.) Large family of 10 persons taking a trip in the family's 12-person van

NOTE:   The definition of commercial vehicle for the purposes of this standard relates to vehicle use. Federal Code defines Commercial Motor Vehicles in Part 390.5 as follows: “Commercial motor vehicle means any self-propelled or towed motor vehicle used on a highway in interstate commerce to transport passengers or property when the vehicle—
1.) Has a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) or gross combination weight rating (GCWR), or gross vehicle weight or gross combination weight, of 4,536 kg (10,001 pounds) or more, whichever is greater; or 
2.) Is designed or used to transport more than 8 passengers (including the driver) for compensation; or 
3.) Is designed or used to transport more than 15 passengers, including the driver, and is not used to transport passengers for compensation; or 
4.) Is used in transporting material found by the Secretary of Transportation to be hazardous under 49 U.S.C. 5103 and transported in a quantity requiring placarding under regulations prescribed by the Secretary under 49 CFR, subtitle B, chapter I, subchapter C.”


2.2.8 other-road-vehicle: An other-road-vehicle is any road vehicle other than a motor vehicle. 

Inclusions: 

Animal-drawn vehicle (any type) 
Animal harnessed to a conveyance 
Animal carrying a person 
Streetcar (See 2.2.4) 
Pedalcycle (See 2.2.27) 

2.2.9 motorcycle: A motorcycle is any motor vehicle having a seat or saddle for the use of its operator and designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground. 

Inclusions: 

Large motorcycle (See 2.2.9.2)
Motor-driven cycle (See 2.2.9.1)
Speed-limited motor-driven cycle (See 2.2.9.3) 
Moped (See 2.2.9.4) 
Three-wheeled motorcycle (See 2.2.9.6)
Motor scooter
Motorized or motor-assisted bicycle
Autocycle (See 2.2.9.7)

Exclusions: 

o Construction, farm or industrial machinery 

2.2.9.1 motor-driven cycle: A motor-driven cycle is any motorcycle having an engine with less than 150 cubic centimeters’ displacement or with five-brake horsepower or less. 

Inclusions: 

Moped (See 2.2.9.4)
Miniature motorcycle (e.g.,” Pocket Bike")

2.2.9.2 large motorcycle: A large motorcycle is any motorcycle other than a motor-driven cycle. 

2.2.9.3 speed-limited motor-driven cycle: A speed-limited motor-driven cycle is any motor-driven cycle which: 

1.) will not attain a speed of more than 30 miles per hour (48 kilometers per hour) in 1 mile (1.609 kilometers) from a standing start, 

2.) has an engine with not more than 50 cubic centimeters’ displacement or with two-brake horsepower or less, and 

3.) has a power drive system which does not require its operator to shift gears. 

2.2.9.4 moped: A moped is a speed-limited motor-driven cycle which may be propelled by pedaling. 

Exclusions: 

o Motor scooter

o Motorized or motor-assisted bicycles

2.2.9.5 motorcycle conversion kit:  A motorcycle conversion assembly makes it possible to convert a conventional two-wheel motorcycle into a motorcycle having the look and the stability of a tricycle-type vehicle, which improves stability and increases ease of operation. 

2.2.9.6 three-wheeled motorcycle: A three-wheeled motorcycle is any motor vehicle having a seat or saddle for the use of its operator, and having three wheels in contact with the ground.

Exclusions: 

o Autocycle (See 2.2.9.7)
2.2.9.7 autocycle: A large motorcycle with one rear wheel and two front wheels, with either a saddle and handlebars or seat(s) and a steering wheel, that can be fully enclosed, partially enclosed, or unenclosed.
2.2.10 bus: A bus is a motor vehicle with seating for transporting nine or more persons, including the driver.

Inclusions:

Van-based bus (See 2.2.14.4)
Small bus (See 2.2.10.1)
Large bus (See 2.2.10.2)
School bus designed to carry nine or more persons, including the driver (See 2.8.1)
Transit bus (See 2.2.10.3)
Intercity bus (See 2.2.10.4)
Charter bus (See 2.2.10.5)
Other bus (See 2.2.10.6)
Limousine designed for carrying nine or more persons, including the driver

Exclusions: 

o Any school bus that is not designed for carrying nine or more persons 

o Any school bus that is an automobile or truck (See 2.8.1)

o Any school bus that is a van or utility vehicle that is not designed for carrying nine or more persons, including the driver

o Recreation vehicle, motorhome and van-based motorhome

o Limousine not designed for carrying nine or more persons

2.2.10.1 small bus: A small bus is a bus with seating for nine to fifteen persons, including the driver.

Inclusions:

Van-based bus (See 2.2.14.4)
Limousine with seating for nine to fifteen persons, including the driver
Utility vehicle with nine or more seats (See 2.2.11)

2.2.10.2 large bus: A large bus is a bus with seating for sixteen or more persons, including the driver.

2.2.10.3 transit bus: A transit bus is a bus used for passenger transportation over fixed, scheduled routes within primarily urban geographical areas.

Inclusions:

Bus that includes service within a city and between cities that share borders
Examples:

1.) City metro or ride-on bus

2.) Trolley (on highway tires)

2.2.10.4 intercity bus: An intercity bus is a bus used for long-distance passenger transportation between cities over fixed routes with regular schedules.

Inclusions:

Cross-country bus
Bus service between cities some distance apart, not cities that share borders.

Examples:

1.) Greyhound or Trailways bus

2.2.10.5 charter bus: A charter bus is a bus providing contract service for a group tour or outing, usually on a round-trip basis.

Inclusions:

Limousine designed for carrying nine or more persons, including the driver.

2.2.10.6 other bus: An other bus is any bus used for transportation purposes other than a school bus (See 2.8), transit bus, intercity bus, or charter bus.

Inclusions:

Private company providing transportation services for its own employees and others (hotel shuttles, etc.)
Non-governmental organization (such as churches and non-profit groups)
Non-educational unit of government (such as departments of corrections)

2.2.11 utility vehicle: A utility vehicle is a motor vehicle other than a motorcycle or large bus consisting primarily of a transport device designed for carrying persons, and generally considered a multi-purpose vehicle that is designed to have off-road capabilities. These vehicles are generally four-wheel-drive (4 x 4) and have increased ground clearance. A utility vehicle typically has a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 10,000 pounds or less. Utility vehicles with wheelbases greater than 88 inches are classified by overall width. The wheelbase and overall width should be rounded to the nearest inch. 

Primary size categories are: 

Mini — the wheelbase is less than or equal to 88 inches. These are typically a microcar with a high-clearance, off-road capability. 

Small — the wheelbase is greater than 88 inches. Overall width is less than or equal to 66 inches. These are typically a short-wheelbase and narrow-tracked multi-purpose vehicle.

Midsize — the wheelbase is greater than 88 inches. Overall width is greater than 66 inches, but less than 75 inches. These are typically a multi-purpose vehicle designed around a shortened pickup truck chassis. 

Full-size — the wheelbase is greater than 88 inches. Overall width is from 75 inches to less than or equal to 80 inches. These are typically a multi-purpose vehicle designed around an enlarged pickup truck chassis. 

Large — the wheelbase is greater than 88 inches. Overall width is more than 80 inches. These are typically a multi-purpose vehicle designed around an enlarged pickup truck chassis. 

Inclusions:

Small bus
Examples: 

Small utility vehicle — S-10 Blazer, Wrangler, Ranger, Jimmy, Tracker 

Midsize utility vehicle — Cherokee, Comanche, Yukon, Typhoon, Explorer, Escape, Envoy, Sorrento, Element, Axiom, Rodeo, Mountaineer, Xterra 

Full-size utility vehicle — Blazer, Suburban, Bronco, F-Series, Sierra, Land Cruiser, Pathfinder, Armada, Ascender, Pilot, Escalade, Expedition, Excursion, Yukon 

Large utility vehicle — Hummer, Navigator



Small bus — Utility vehicles with 9 or more seats, including the driver; i.e., Chevy Suburban, Ford Excursion, Ford Expedition, GMC Yukon XL, Chevy Tahoe 

Exclusions: 

o Four-wheel-drive automobiles (See 2.2.12) are not considered utility vehicles 

2.2.12 automobile: An automobile is a motor vehicle other than a motorcycle, utility vehicle, or low speed vehicle consisting of a transport device typically designed for carrying eight or fewer persons. Automobiles may be classified by size or weight, or both. Size classification is based on wheelbase. Weight classification is based on curb weight, the weight of an automobile with standard equipment and a full complement of fuel and other fluids, but with no load of persons or property. Before classification, wheelbase should be rounded to the nearest inch and curb weight should be rounded to the nearest 100 pounds. 

Primary size categories are: 

Small — wheelbase 99 inches (2.51 meters) or less 

Midsize — wheelbase 100 to 109 inches (2.54 to 2.77 meters) 

Large — wheelbase 110 inches (2.79 meters) or more 

Primary weight categories are: 

Light — curb weight 2,400 pounds (1,089 kilograms) or less 

Midweight — curb weight 2,500 to 3,400 pounds (1,134 to 1,542 kilograms) 

Heavy — curb weight 3,500 pounds (1,588 kilograms) or more 

Secondary size and weight categories may be developed by subdivision of the primary categories. (See 3.10 and 3.11) 

2.2.13 truck: A truck is a motor vehicle designed primarily for carrying property. 

Inclusions: 

Single-unit truck (See 2.2.19) 
Truck combination (See 2.2.21) 

Exclusions: 

o Truck tractor (See 2.2.20) 

2.2.14 van: A van is a motor vehicle consisting primarily of a transport device which has a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 10,000 pounds or less and is basically a “box on wheels” that is identifiable by its enclosed passenger and/or cargo area, step-up floor, and relatively short (or non-existent) hood. Vans are classified by size based on frame type and overall vehicle body width. Before classification, vehicle width should be rounded to the nearest inch. 

Primary size categories are: 

Minivan — Unibody van: The body and frame are one integral unit 

Small — Frame-based small vans: The overall body width is from 72 inches to less than or equal to 78 inches. These are frame-based standard cargo vans or passenger vans.

Midsize — Frame-based midsize vans: The overall body width is from more than 78 inches to less than or equal to 80 inches. These are frame-based midsize cargo vans or passenger vans.

Large — Frame-based large vans: The overall body width is more than 80 inches. These are frame-based large cargo vans or passenger vans. 

Inclusions: 

Passenger van (See 2.2.14.1) 
Cargo van or delivery van (See 2.2.14.2) 
Van-based motorhome (See 2.2.14.3) 

Exclusions: 

o Utility Vehicle
 
Examples: 

1.) Minivan — Caravan, Voyager, Transport, Lumina 

2.) Small — Astro Van, Safari 

3.) Midsize — Vandura, Econoline

4.) Large — Step van

2.2.14.1 passenger van: A passenger van is any van where the area behind the driver or cab is designed for carrying passengers. 

Inclusions: 

Some automobiles (See 2.2.12)
Minivan
Van-based bus (See 2.2.14.4)

Exclusions:

o Cargo van (See 2.2.14.2)

2.2.14.2 cargo van: A cargo van is any van where the area behind the driver or cab is designed for transporting cargo or operated for general commercial use. 

Inclusions: 

Some single-unit trucks (See 2.2.19.) 

2.2.14.3 van-based motorhome: A van-based motorhome is any van where a frame-mounted recreational unit is added behind the driver or cab area.

2.2.14.4 van-based bus: A van-based bus is any passenger van designed for carrying nine or more persons, including the driver.

Examples:

1.) Full-sized passenger van with nine seats or more, including the driver

2.) Van cutaway or cab-chassis with nine or more seats, including the driver

Exclusions:

o Any limousine

2.2.15 trailer: A trailer is a road vehicle designed to be drawn by another road vehicle. 

Inclusions: 

Pole trailer (See 2.2.16)

Semitrailer (See 2.2.17)

Full trailer (See 2.2.18) 

2.2.16 pole trailer: A pole trailer is a trailer designed to be attached to the towing road vehicle by means of a reach or pole, or by being boomed or otherwise secured to the towing road vehicle, and ordinarily used for carrying property of a long or irregular shape such as poles, pipes or structural members that are generally capable of sustaining themselves as beams between the supporting connections.

2.2.17 semitrailer: A semitrailer is a trailer, other than a pole trailer, designed for carrying property and so constructed that part of its weight rests upon or is carried by the towing road vehicle.
 
2.2.18 full trailer: A full trailer is a trailer, other than a pole trailer, designed for carrying property and so constructed that no part of its weight rests upon or is carried by the towing road vehicle. An auxiliary undercarriage assembly, commonly known as a converter dolly and consisting of a chassis, fifth wheel and one or more tow bars, is sometimes used to convert a semitrailer to a full trailer. A semitrailer equipped with a converter dolly is considered a full trailer. 

2.2.19 single-unit truck: A single-unit truck is a truck consisting primarily of a single motorized transport device designed for carrying property. When connected to a trailer, such a device may be part of a truck combination. (See 2.2.21) 

Examples: 

1.) Two-axle, four-tire truck
2.) Two-axle, six-tire truck
3.) Three or more-axle truck

Exclusions:

o Truck tractor (See 2.2.20)
o Truck combination (See 2.2.21)
2.2.20 truck tractor: A truck tractor is a motor vehicle consisting of a single motorized transport device designed primarily for drawing trailers. 

2.2.21 truck combination: A truck combination is a truck consisting primarily of a transport device which is a single-unit truck or truck tractor together with one or more attached trailers. 

Inclusions: 

Truck tractor with semitrailer

Truck tractor with semitrailer and one or more full trailers

Single-unit truck with one or more full trailers

2.2.22 gross vehicle weight (GVW): Gross vehicle weight is the actual weight of a road vehicle including the weight of the road vehicle, its load of persons and property, and all added equipment. 

2.2.23 gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR): A gross vehicle weight rating is the value specified by the manufacturer as the recommended maximum loaded weight of a single motor vehicle. This rating includes the maximum rated capacity of a vehicle, including the base vehicle, mounted equipment, and any cargo and passengers. Most of the time, GVWR is the sum of the maximum rated capacity of the axles of the vehicle.

Inclusions:

Initial or second-stage manufacturing GVWR ratings

2.2.23.1 gross combination weight rating (GCWR): A gross combination weight rating is the value specified by the manufacturer(s) as the recommended maximum loaded weight of a combination (articulated) motor vehicle. This is for truck tractors and single-unit trucks pulling a trailer(s). GCWR is the sum of the gross vehicle weight ratings (GVWR) of all units; power unit and its trailer(s).

2.2.24 light truck: A light truck is a truck which has a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 10,000 pounds (4,536 kilograms) or less. 

2.2.25 medium truck: A medium truck is a truck which has a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of more than 10,000 pounds and less than or equal to 26,000 pounds (4,536 to 11,793 kilograms). 

2.2.26 heavy truck: A heavy truck is a truck which has a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of more than 26,000 pounds (11,793 kilograms).

2.2.27 pedalcycle: A pedalcycle is a non-motorized other road vehicle propelled by pedaling. 


Inclusions: 

Bicycle, tricycle, unicycle, pedalcar 

2.2.28 roadway: A roadway is that part of a trafficway designed, improved, and ordinarily used for motor vehicle travel or, where various classes of motor vehicles are segregated, that part of a trafficway used by a particular class. Separate roadways may be provided for opposing directions of traffic or for trucks and automobiles (See Figures 1 and 2). 

Exclusions: 

o Bridle path, bicycle path

NOTE: The above definition of “roadway” is consistent with definitions in general use by law enforcement and by traffic engineers.  Other highway engineers commonly use the term "roadway" as the term “road” is defined in 2.2.33 below (to include shoulder).  The Model Inventory of Roadway Elements and American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials’ guidelines and references may be different.  

2.2.29 median: A median is an area of a trafficway between parallel roads separating travel in opposite directions (See Figures 1 and 2). A flush or painted median should be 4 or more feet wide between inside roadway edge lines. Medians fewer than 4 feet wide shall have a barrier to be considered a median. Continuous left-turn lanes are not considered painted medians. 

Inclusions: 

Physical barrier separating roads with travel in opposite directions

Depressed, raised, or flush area between roads with travel in opposite directions 

Painted median of 4 or more feet wide between roads with travel in opposite directions 

Examples:

1.) A depressed, grassy median separating directions of travel of a divided highway

2.) A median with a concrete traffic barrier, guardrail, or other physical barrier, separating roads of a multi-lane divided highway
3.)  A flush painted median of 4 or more feet of a divided highway

Exclusions: 

o Shoulder, separator (See 2.2.30)
o Turn lane (See 2.5.23)
o Continuous left-turn lane

2.2.30 separator: A separator is the area of a trafficway between parallel roads separating travel in the same direction or separating a frontage road (See 2.5.18) from other roads (See Figure 3). 

Inclusions: 

Physical barrier separating roads with travel in the same direction 

Physical barrier separating a frontage road from other roads of a trafficway 

Depressed, raised, or flush area between roads with travel in the same direction

Depressed, raised, or flush area between a frontage road and other roads of a trafficway 

 

Examples: 

1.) A depressed grassy separator of a freeway between the main travel lanes and a frontage road 

2.) A concrete separator between the express travel lanes and local travel lanes of a freeway 

Exclusions:

o Shoulder, median

2.2.31 roadside: A roadside is the outermost part of the trafficway from the property line or other boundary in to the edge of the first road (See Figure 3). 

Inclusions: 

Area between edge of trafficway and edge of roadway with no shoulder

Area between edge of trafficway and edge of shoulder 

Exclusions: 

Roadways, shoulders, separators, and medians 


2.2.32 shoulder: A shoulder is that part of a trafficway contiguous with the roadway for emergency use, for accommodation of stopped road vehicles, and for lateral support of the roadway structure (See Figure 1).

2.2.33 road: A road is that part of a trafficway which includes both the roadway and any shoulder alongside the roadway (See Figure 1).

Inclusions: 

Designated parking areas on a roadway or between the roadway and the curb 
2.2.33.1 total lanes in roadway: The total number of lanes in a roadway is collected for each vehicle, on the roadway on which that vehicle was traveling. Through lanes also include shared through/turn lanes but exclude turn-only lanes, auxiliary lanes such as collector-distributor lanes, weaving lanes, frontage road lanes, parking lanes, acceleration/deceleration lanes, toll-collection lanes, and truck climbing lanes. Total lanes are collected in two parts as total through lanes and total auxiliary lanes.
2.2.34 in-transport: The term “in-transport" denotes the state or condition of a transport vehicle which is in motion or within the portion of a transport way ordinarily used by similar transport vehicles. When applied to motor vehicles, “in-transport" means on a roadway or in motion within or outside the trafficway.
A transport vehicle which is also a working motor vehicle at the time of the unstabilized situation (See 2.4.4) is not "in-transport."

In roadway lanes used for travel during some periods and for parking during other periods, a parked motor vehicle should be considered in-transport during periods when parking is forbidden. 

Inclusions: 

Motor vehicle in traffic on a roadway

Driverless motor vehicle in motion on the shoulder, roadside, or median

Motionless or disabled motor vehicle abandoned on a roadway

Motor vehicle in motion outside the trafficway


A stopped motor vehicle with any portion of its primary outline as defined by the four sides of the vehicle (e.g., tires, bumpers, fenders) and load, if any, within the roadway

Examples:

1.)  A driverless vehicle previously parked on the shoulder begins to roll forward because the parking brake was not set

2.)   A stopped vehicle partially on the shoulder with two tires on the roadway

3.)  A tractor trailer with its load hanging over the roadway edge line

4.) A person deliberately driving an all-terrain-vehicle (ATV) down a median or the roadside

5.)  A police vehicle patrolling or responding to an emergency

6.)  A police or emergency vehicle stopped on the roadway at the scene of a crash or traffic stop or other action, whether or not the emergency lights have been activated

7.) Construction, maintenance, or utility work vehicle traveling on a trafficway from one work site to another location

8.)  Taxi, limousine, or other passenger vehicle, with or without passengers while on the roadway or in motion on a trafficway

9.)  A school bus stopped in a travel lane with signs and/or lights activated

10.) A private citizen using his pickup truck or lawn tractor with a blade removing snow from the roadways in his neighborhood (Not a highway maintenance activity)

11.) A farm tractor or combine moving from a storage facility to a field under its own power on the trafficway

12.) A moving motor vehicle on a private driveway

13.) A car pulling away from a gas pump in a gas station

14.)  An ATV driving on a recreational off-road trail inside or outside the trafficway

15.)  A vehicle operating in the closed portion of the trafficway

16.) A van left unattended in a lane during rush hour when parking is prohibited because it is in an open travel lane at the time

Exclusions:

o Transport vehicle stopped off the roadway within the trafficway

o Transport vehicle stopped in parking lanes during periods when parking is allowed

o Transport vehicle performing construction, maintenance, or utility work related to the work zone of a trafficway

o A stopped motor vehicle with any portion of its primary outline as defined by the four sides of the vehicle (e.g., tires, bumpers, fenders) and load, if any, not within the roadway

Examples:

1.) A disabled utility vehicle stopped on the shoulder, median, or roadside

2.)  An automobile parked in an area designated for parking against the curb of a residential street or in a parking space/lane

3.) A truck stopped on the shoulder where only the extended side-view mirror overhangs the roadway edge line

4.) A power company truck working on the power lines in an elevated basket in a maintenance work zone

5.) A paint striping highway truck in the act of painting the lines in a mobile maintenance zone

6.) A concrete mixer discharging its load of concrete in a construction work zone

7.) An asphalt spreader or roller repaving the roadway

8.) A highway road grader grading a soft, sloped roadside

9.) Highway snow removal truck removing or plowing snow as part of a highway maintenance activity

2.2.34.1 not in-transport: Not in-transport means any transport vehicle which is not "in-transport”.

Inclusions:

Legally parked transport vehicles off the roadway
Motionless vehicles off the roadway
Working motor vehicles (See 2.2.7.2)

Examples:

1.) A stopped vehicle on the shoulder to change a tire

2.) An asphalt spreader or roller repaving the roadway

3.) A car stopped at the exit of a gas station waiting to enter the roadway

4.) A pickup stopped on a private driveway

5.) A car legally parked against the curb on a residential street

6.)  A parked truck completely on the shoulder of a road



o Transport vehicles in-transport

2.2.34.2 parked motor vehicle: A parked motor vehicle is a motor vehicle not in-transport, other than a working motor vehicle, that is not in motion and not located on the roadway.

In roadway lanes used for travel during some periods and for parking during other periods, a parked motor vehicle should be considered in-transport during periods when parking is forbidden.

Inclusions:

Any stopped motor vehicle where the entirety of the vehicle's primary outline as defined by the four 

sides of the vehicle (e.g., tires, bumpers, fenders) and load, if any, is not within the roadway

Examples:

1.) A driver of vehicle stopped curbside on a city street opens his door into the travel lane

2.) A truck stopped on the shoulder where only the extended side-view mirror overhangs the roadway edge line

3.) A motionless vehicle on the shoulder, median, or roadside

4.) A truck stopped at a gas station pump

5.) A car stopped in a private driveway

6.) A van parked in a metered parking lane, even when the meter time has expired

Exclusions:

o A motor vehicle in motion anywhere within the trafficway boundaries or any vehicle that has any portion of its primary outline or load, if any, overlapping or falling completely within the roadway

o A motor vehicle left unattended on a roadway, where parking is always prohibited

Examples:

1.) A vehicle driving down the road shoulder, median, or roadside

2.) A driverless motor vehicle without engine power starts in motion from a stopped position on the shoulder

3.) A stopped vehicle partially on the shoulder with two tires on the roadway

4.) A tractor trailer with part of its load extending over the roadway edge line

5.) A van left unattended in a lane during rush hour when parking is prohibited because it is in an open travel lane at that time



6.) A delivery service leaves a truck stopped at the curb of a street marked with "no parking at any time" signs while making a delivery

2.2.35 occupant: An occupant is any person who is part of a transport vehicle.
 
2.2.36 pedestrian: A pedestrian is any person who is not an occupant. 

Inclusions: 

Person on foot

Person walking, running, jogging, hiking, sitting, or lying within the trafficway or on private property, etc.

Persons in buildings

Person on personal conveyance (See 2.2.6.1)

A person ejected from a transport vehicle who has come to rest in the trafficway during a prior unstabilized situation and struck in a second or subsequent unstabilized situation

Exclusions:

o A person ejected from a transport vehicle during one unstabilized situation is still considered an occupant and not a pedestrian for the purposes of that unstabilized situation. 

2.2.37 driver: A driver is an occupant who is in actual physical control of a transport vehicle or, for an out-of-control vehicle, an occupant who was in control until control was lost. 

2.2.38 passenger: A passenger is any occupant of a road vehicle other than its driver. 

2.2.39 pedalcyclist: A pedalcyclist is any occupant of a pedalcycle in-transport. 

2.2.40 motorist: A motorist is any occupant of a motor vehicle. 

Inclusions: 

Occupants of motor vehicles not in-transport 

2.2.41 non-motorist: A non-motorist is any person other than a motorist. 

Inclusions: 

Any pedestrian (See 2.2.36)

Occupants of transport vehicles other than motor vehicles

2.2.42 traffic unit: A traffic unit is a land vehicle or a pedestrian.

Inclusions:

Motor vehicles in-transport (See 2.2.34), motor vehicles not in-transport (See 2.2.34.1), railway trains

Pedestrians and pedalcyclists

Other non-motorists

2.2.43 bikeway: A bikeway is that part of a trafficway specifically designated as being open for pedalcycle travel or, where various classes of pedalcycle are segregated, that part of a trafficway open for a particular class (See 2.2.28). 

2.2.44 bicycle trail: A bicycle trail (also known as a shared use path) is a bikeway reserved for pedalcycles and separated from roadways by open space or barriers. 

2.2.45 bicycle lane: A bicycle lane is a bikeway adjacent to travel lanes which has been designated for preferential or exclusive use by pedalcyclists through striping, signage, or pavement markings. 

2.2.46 shared road: A shared road is any bikeway which is part of a roadway, but not a bicycle lane. 


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote jvecchi Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: Sep/24/2018 at 11:44am
In 2.2.41, non-motorist was revised in the body of the classification to exclude occupants of motor vehicles which are not-in-transport. Occupants of motor vehicles not in transport are now classified under 2.2.40, Motorist.  The current document did not capture this update in the Glossary.  
We are aware of this error, and it will be corrected at the next printing. 
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2.2.6.1 Personal Conveyance was added to the Classification in the 7th edition.  This was to address motorized devices used for personal mobility assistance or recreation, so that they could be distinguished from 2.2.7 motor vehicles.  Additionally,2.2.9  Motorcycle lists motorized or motor-assisted bicycle. 
Since that time, other similar types of devices are being enhanced with electric motors.  
It is suggested that we now revisit the definitions to determine current suitability.  An example of this type of vehicle can be found at: https://www.msn.com/en-us/video/wonder/the-jack-rabbit-could-change-urban-transport-as-we-know-it/vi-AAyTT8F
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote jvecchi Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: Sep/25/2018 at 9:06am
Further in regard to personal conveyance 2.2.6.1the 7th edition added information related to devices such as the "Segway" personal assistance scoooters and motorized versions of devices traditionally thought of as toys. (e.g., skateboards, Razor scooters, toy cars, etc.) which were becoming more prevalent and often were operated on trafficways by licensed and unlicensed operators. The difficulty was in effectively separating these conveyances from motor vehicles.

The problem was that there was nothing to call them.  They weren’t motorcycles clearly, but they were motorized. The general traffic safety consensus for D16 at the time was that these devices were better classified not as transport devices but rather as a class of non-motorist devices (personal conveyances) as they were better treated as devices for personal mobility assistance or recreation rather than as devices meant for transportation on the roadway with other motor vehicles. An example of the kind of issues that came up included questions like “if a person in a mobility assistance scooter tips over on the sidewalk, falls out and is hurt, is that an injury motor vehicle traffic crash with a rollover and an ejection of an unrestrained occupant?”  Obviously, the consensus for the 7th edition was no, and that these needed to have their own classification separate from motor vehicles. Thus, personal conveyance was developed. 

If the concept of their purpose being “personal mobility assistance or recreation” is still applicable and if these now maybe should be considered under a new term as a class of transport device?  That is, are they now are intended to be operated for transportation purposes like other motor vehicles? It remains to be seen how they will be addressed legally. For example, if they are permitted to travel in locations typically designed for non-motorists (e.g., sidewalks, bike paths, crosswalks) then personal conveyance is still adequate and where they belong. 

Members of the 7th edition consensus body discussed the fact that these devices are not generally required to be licensed as motor vehicles. We are now at a point, however, where crashes involving electric scooters are on the rise.  Many U S cities have begun to amass fleets and offer dock-less rental e-scooters as shared city transport devices. Although there is no current statistical study on which to depend, emergency departments have reported a spike in visits resulting from crashes of or falls from e-scooters.  

The discussion needs to address how these should be defined and what they should be called.

 


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