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    Posted: Aug/24/2018 at 2:25pm – author:Kellee_TSASS

    2.5 Location 

    2.5.1       urban area: An urban area is an area whose boundaries shall be those fixed by responsible state and local officials in cooperation with each other and approved by the Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Such boundaries are established in accordance with the provisions of Title 23 of the United States Code. Urban area boundary information is available from state highway or transportation departments. If boundaries have not been fixed as above for any urban place designated by the Bureau of the Census having a population of 5,000 or more, the area within boundaries fixed by the Bureau of the Census shall be an urban area. 

    2.5.2 rural area: A rural area is any area which is not within urban areas.

    2.5.3 Interstate System: The Interstate System is the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways as defined in Section 101, Title 23, United States Code.

    2.5.4 interstate highway: An Interstate highway is a trafficway on the Interstate System.

    2.5.5 other U.S. route numbered highway: An other U.S. route numbered highway is a trafficway numbered by the American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials, but not an interstate highway.

    2.5.6 other state route numbered highway: An other state route numbered highway is a trafficway within a state trafficway system, but not an interstate highway or other U.S. route numbered highway.

    2.5.7 county road: A county road is a trafficway within a county trafficway system that is not an Interstate highway, other U.S. route numbered highway, or other state route numbered highway.

    2.5.8 city street: A city street is a trafficway within a city trafficway system that is not an Interstate highway, other U.S. route numbered highway, other state route numbered highway, or county road.

    2.5.9 driveway access: A driveway access is a portion of the trafficway at the end of a driveway (See, providing access to property adjacent to a trafficway (See Figure 4).


    • Entrance to private residence

    • Entrances to gas station

    • Sidewalks which cross over a driveway access


    o Any area not within a trafficway driveway: A driveway is a private way which provides vehicular access to the public from a trafficway to property, parking, or loading areas outside the boundaries of the trafficway, but is not considered open to the public for transportation purposes as a trafficway. A driveway is outside the trafficway and is typically not provided an official identification name or number.


    • A private drive providing access to a residence

    • Entrance to business or other private entity not open to the public for transportation purpose


    o Privately constructed and/or maintained road open to the public for moving persons or property from one place to another

    o Parking lot (See 2.5.22), which includes parking stalls, parking lot aisles, and parking lot ways

    o Entrance to a business or other entity open to the public

    o Driveway access (See 2.5.9)

    2.5.10 intersection: An intersection is an area which (1) contains a crossing or connection of two or more roadways not classified as driveway access and (2) is embraced within the prolongation of the lateral curb lines or, if none, the lateral boundary lines of the roadways. Where the distance along a roadway between two areas meeting these criteria is less than 10 meters (33 feet), the two areas and the roadway connecting them are considered parts of a single intersection (See Figure 5).

    2.5.11 junction: A junction is either an intersection or the connection between a driveway access and a roadway other than a driveway access.

    2.5.12 at-grade intersection: An at-grade intersection is an intersection where all roadways cross or join at the same level.

    2.5.13 channelized intersection: A channelized intersection is an at-grade intersection in which traffic is diverted into definite paths by raised or painted traffic islands (See Figure 6).

    2.5.14 grade separation: A grade separation is a crossing at different levels of two trafficways, or a trafficway and a railway.

    2.5.15 fully-controlled access highway: A fully-controlled access highway is a trafficway on which preference is given to through traffic by permitting access only from other trafficways and by providing grade separations at all crossing trafficways.

    2.5.16 interchange: An interchange is a system of interconnecting roadways in conjunction with one or more grade separations, providing for the movement of traffic between two or more roadways on different levels
    2.5.17 ramp, exit/entrance: An exit/entrance ramp is an auxiliary roadway used for entering or leaving through-traffic lanes.

    2.5.18 frontage road: A frontage road is a roadway generally paralleling an expressway, freeway, parkway, or through street so designed as to intercept, collect, and distribute traffic desiring to cross, enter, or leave such facility and to furnish access to property which otherwise would be isolated as a result of controlled-access features. The frontage road may be within the same trafficway as the main roadway or in a separate trafficway (See Figure 7).

    2.5.19 gore: A gore is an area of land where two roadways diverge or converge. The area is bounded on two sides by the edges of the roadways, which join at the point of divergence or convergence. The direction of traffic shall be the same on both sides of these roadways. The area includes shoulders or marked pavement, if any, between the roadways. The third side is 60 meters (approximately 200 feet) from the point of divergence or convergence or, if any other road is within 70 meters (230 feet) of that point, a line 10 meters (33 feet) from the nearest edge of such road (See Figure 8).


    • Area at rest area entry or exit ramp

    • Area at truck weigh station entry or exit ramp

    • Area where two main roadways diverge or converge

    • Area where a ramp and another roadway, or two ramps, diverge or converge

    • Area where a frontage road and another roadway, or two frontage roads, diverge or converge

    o Island for channelization of vehicle movements

    o Island for pedestrian refuge

    2.5.20 curb return: A curb return is the curved section of curb used at intersections in joining straight sections of curb

    2.5.21 crosswalk: A crosswalk is (1) that part of a roadway at an intersection included within the connections of the lateral lines of the sidewalks on opposite sides of the roadway measured from the curbs or, in the absence of curbs, from the edges of the traversable roadway, or (2) any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface of the roadway.

    2.5.22 parking lot: A parking lot is an area used primarily for parking road vehicles. When paved and marked, it commonly includes the following areas:

    1.) Parking stalls — areas reserved primarily for parked road vehicles

    2.) Parking lot aisles — areas used primarily for vehicular access to parking stalls. Parking lot aisles are not trafficways.

    3.) Parking lot ways — (See parking lot way: A parking lot way is a land way which is used primarily for vehicular circulation within parking lots and for vehicular access to parking lot aisles. Parking lot ways in parking lots open to the public are trafficways.
    2.5.23 turn lane: A turn lane is a lane exclusively designated for vehicles turning from one trafficway to another.


    • Continuous left-turn lane


    o Through travel lanes

    2.5.24 work zone: A work zone is an area of a trafficway where construction, maintenance, or utility work activities are identified by warning signs/signals/indicators, including those on transport devices (e.g., signs, flashing lights, channelizing devices, barriers, pavement markings, flagmen, warning signs and arrow boards mounted on the vehicles in a mobile maintenance activity) that mark the beginning and end of a construction, maintenance, or utility work activity.

    It extends from the first warning sign, signal, or flashing lights to the END ROAD WORK sign or the last traffic control device pertinent to that work activity.

    Work zones also include roadway sections where there is ongoing, moving (mobile) work activity such as lane line painting or roadside mowing only if the beginning of the ongoing, moving (mobile) work activity is designated by warning signs or signals.


    The following situations within the trafficway:

    • Long-term stationary construction such as building a new bridge, adding travel lanes to the roadway, extending an existing trafficway, etc. (construction activity/work)

    • Work involving moving activities such as striping the roadway, median and roadside grass mowing/ landscaping, pothole repair, snowplowing, lane line painting, etc., where there are warning signs or signals marking the beginning of the moving work area (Mobile maintenance activity/work)

    • Short-term stationary work such as repairing/ maintaining electric, gas, water lines, or traffic signals (Utility activity/work)

    • Areas identified by signage as a work zone where the ongoing work activity has temporarily paused


    o Any private construction, maintenance, or utility work outside the trafficway

    o Any area of the trafficway where there is moving maintenance activity (e.g., roadside grass mowing/landscaping, pothole repair, snowplowing, lane line painting) without warning signs or signals

    o Citizen removing snow from the trafficway as a neighborly gesture

    o Area identified by signage, where the activity has not begun or is complete

    Edited by Kellee_TSASS – Aug/24/2018 at 2:35pm

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